Pavlovo Posad scarf is a symbol of traditional Russian culture since early ages. At the beginning of the XIX century a scarf firmly entrenched in everyday life of different layers of Russian society, and became uintegral part of Russian national costume – first of nobility and then a bit later of merchants and peasants.
1795 is considered to be the year of foundation of Pavlovo Posad scarves manufactory and in 1850-s scarves begun to be produced in a small town.
Pavlovo Posad a factory of merchants Iakov Ivanovich Habzin and Vasili Ivanovich Gryaznov. During the whole XIX century scarves were handmade. Pattern on the fabric was applied with the help of carved boards of two kinds – “flowers" and “manners".
“Flowers" were carved of wood, paints were applied on the fabric with their help, moreover, each color needed a new board. Contours of patterns were made by “manners". Their production was very time-consuming: the ornament was cauterized on wood at a definite depth and then filled with lead.
As the production of “flowers" and “manners" of scarf size was impossible, the ornament was divided into parts from 4 to 24 in large size shawls with complicated and multicolored ornament with a large number of elements. That's why to make one scarf sometimes took more than 400 applications of boards.
Especially difficult was the coincidence of separate parts of the ornament. Patterns were, as a rule very stable and printing boards sometimes were used during decades. If necessary they were renovated on replicated.
In 1870 -1880-s in the decor of Pavlovo Posad scarves together with oriental and Turkish ornaments “flower" theme and themes of old ages were widely used. They were branches of trees, various flourish, ribbons in various combinations and dimentions. These were years of rapid flowering of Pavlovo Posad scarves production. Namely, during this period the manufacture receives important awards – Russian exhibition medals of 1870 and 1882. Little by little bright aniline dyes begin to be used, which let to produce saturated colors. Pavlovo Posad scarves are becoming more and merchant societies that is in burgers' and peasants' ones.
The end of the XIX century and the beginning of the XXth can be characterized as the completion of the formation of Pavlovo Posad scarves style production. At this period most famous were scarves of two types: first was made of the finest almost transparent wool for the manufacture of which silk prosnovki were used. Its ornaments were printed on cream or multicolored ground. The most common colors were red and black. Ornaments consisted of leaves, flowers, bouquets, garlands often placed along the edge of the scarf or shawl.
The second type was made of thick woolen fabric. The peculiarity of this type was in the character of printing, flavor and color solutions, based on the combination of a small number of bright saturated colors with the leadership of red and burgundy, and picturesque, eye-catching composition. Compositions in such scarves are usually framed with elongated decorative elements and additionally arranged in there composition geometric shapes and stripes supplemented by flower compositions and garlands.
The emphasis shifts to the angular fields of scarves, almost all area of which is filled with ornaments leaving free only a small area in the center of a scarf.
From 1970-s the greater part of scarves are printed with the help of special silk or nylon net pattern. Pattern printing helps to use unlimited number of colors, make slim sleek contour drawing, precisely to combine elements of the picture, make color control easier, which in whole reduces print defects. Thanks to net patterns scarves now consists of about 2,3 different shades and colors.
Appearance and quality they are far superior products printed by the previously used method of “flower" and “manner".
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